2017, Cilt 26, Sayı 3, Sayfa(lar) 275-284
Epidemiology and Clinical and Radiographic Characteristics of Pneumonia in Kidney Transplant Recipients; 24-Year Experience
DOI 10.5262/tndt.2017.1001.23
Oğuzhan Sıtkı DİZDAR1, Alparslan ERSOY2, Halis AKALIN3
1Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Kayseri, Turkey
2Uludag University Medical Faculty, Department of Nephrology, Bursa, Turkey
3Uludag University Medical Faculty, Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease, Bursa, Turkey
Keywords: Pneumonia, Kidney transplantation, Radiography, Physical examination, Nosocomial

OBJECTIVE: Pneumonia increases morbidity and mortality in kidney transplant (KT) recipients. This study aimed to investigate characteristics of pneumonias in KT recipients by focusing on clinical and radiographic findings and diagnostic methods over a long study period.

MATERIAL and METHODS: The medical records of kidney transplant recipients who had a diagnosis of pneumonia from 1988 to 2011 were reviewed retrospectively.

RESULTS: Among 406 consecutive KT recipients, 20% had pneumonia during the study period and total 111 episodes of pneumonia developed in these patients. Fifty-six percent of the pneumonias were community acquired and 44% nosocomial. Bacterial infections were the most common cause (20%) and 13 (12%) of the episodes were polymicrobial. Antibiotic usage in the last three months was significantly more common in fungal pneumonia episodes than others. Bronchoscopy had the highest final overall diagnostic yield.

CONCLUSION: Community-acquired pneumonia was more common, but it showed a more benign clinical course. Bacterial pneumonia was the most common cause, but polymicrobial infection was present in a significant number of KT recipients. Fungi can invade KT recipients, in particular, patients in the interval of 1-6 month after transplantation and patients who have used antibiotics in the last three months.


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